Super long, in depth, free book on computer vision by a researcher at Microsoft that worked on Photosynth. Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications
Learning OpenCV is one of the best resources for learning about computer vision in a practical, application-oriented way.
Another really good way to learn OpenCV is just reading through the tutorials and documentation on the OpenCV website.
The Pocket Handbook of Image Processing Algorithms in C is great for little tips and descriptions of computer vision and image processing algorithms, though it's a little buggy sometimes.
Computer Vision Test Videos from Theo and other contributors. There are lots of other websites with test videos for computer vision, for a variety of applications/domains.
Kumi Yamashita is a NYC-based artist that has worked with 3d volumes projected as 2d shadows. Also see work from Larry Kagan.
2d shadows/forms can also be projected into 3d spaces. See work from Justin Manor and Tamas Waliczky.
Because 3d is still relatively new, it can be helpful to think about how the visual aesthetic is related to older forms. Consider the work of Sophie Kahn compared to Norman McLaren's Pas de Deux. Or compare the recent Moullinex video to sculpture by Antony Gormley.